"Though it has been over a century since the R.M.S. Titanic sank after hitting an iceberg, modern-day ships remain as vulnerable to such catastrophes. The most recent disaster occurred in May 2019, when a sightseeing boat on the Danube River in Hungary capsized and sank after colliding with a river cruise ship, killing 28 of the 35 tourists aboard. Now, researchers from New York's University of Rochester may have found a way to avert such tragedies, with a water-repellant metal that can stay afloat even after having several holes drilled in it.
The team, led by the university's optics and physics professor Chunlei Guo, began by creating tiny grooves on a metal surface with femtosecond — one quadrillionth of a second — laser blasts. The air trapped inside the tiny etchings helped form a protective barrier around the exterior, causing water droplets to slide off. Though the technique worked for short periods, friction with the water molecules for extended amounts of time caused the metal to lose its hydrophobic ability.
To find a solution, the researchers turned to insects — specifically the Argyroneta aquatica, or diving bell spider, and the fire ant — which have both devised unique techniques to survive in water for extended periods. The arachnids, who spend their entire lives underwater, carry their oxygen supply with them inside a dome-shaped web that sits between their super-hydrophobic legs and abdomens. When the air runs out, the spiders simply return to the water's surface and create another bubble. Though fire ants do not live underwater, they are known to survive floods by linking their bodies close enough together to develop raft-like structures. This helps trap air between the insects' water-resistant limbs and allows them to stay afloat."
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